Answered by Sayyidi Habib Umar bin Hafiz (may Allah protect him and benefit us by him).
What type of dhikr can someone make if they are not affiliated to any tariqah?
The dhikr of Allah is beneficial in whatever form is it made. If it is taken from someone with a sanad (unbroken chain of connection) to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ it has more effect and is more likely to be accepted and this is essentially the meaning of tariqah. Furthermore, if it is taken from someone with a sanad in travelling the spiritual path then it will have a more illuminating effect and be more effective.